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新航道北京学校 > 托福培训 > 托福写作 > 托福写作无话可写?这里有“万能理由”供你选择

托福写作无话可写?这里有“万能理由”供你选择

最近更新时间:2021-03-19 17:31:01来源:新航道北京学校

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  托福写作无话可写?这里有“万能理由”供你选择!如果在写作考试时“无话可说”,即思路打不开,可以从“冰淇淋法”即“万能理由”的角度去想。这一做法类似于英语所说的“头脑风暴”(brainstorming),即在短时间内就一个作文题就行自由联想,列出能想到的全部观点,然后进行分类(如一个事物的正反两个方面),供提纲和写作之用。“万能理由”包含22个词汇、共11组(各组词中的两个词是独立的,之所以把两个词放在一起,纯粹是出于方便记忆的目的),取各组单词的首字母,得“isckrem”(其中C代表4组,e代表2组),发音近似于(ice-cream),所以从“万能理由”的角度打开思路的方法被称之为“冰淇淋法”。

  “冰淇淋法”二十二招式

  1. Independence and altruism (独立与利他)

  2. Safety and technology(安全与科技)

  3. Cooperation and competition(合作与竞争)

  4. Communication and trust(交流与信任)

  5. Culture sand values (文化与价值)

  6. Convenience and time(方便与时间)

  7. Knowledge and emotion(知识与情感)

  8. Rights and perseverance(权利与毅力)

  9. Economy and efficiency(经济与效率)

  10. Environment and health(环境与健康)

  11. Money and interest (金钱与兴趣)

  分组记忆方法:

  “独立”与“利他”对立

  “科技”需要“安全”

  “合作”与“竞争”对立

  “交流”需要“信任”

  “文化”体现“价值”观念

  “方便”涉及“时间”

  “知识”需要“情感”

  维护“权利”需要“毅力”

  “经济”需要“效率”

  “环境”需要“健康”

  “金钱”维持“兴趣”

  例如:

  2013年1月12日真题:

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

  An effective leader should try to make others feel that they are part of the decision making process.

  根据“冰淇淋法”二十二招式进行自由联想,可以列出下列观点:

  1. cooperation(需要被领导者合作)

  2. communication and trust(交流消除误会、产生信任)

  3. time(沟通消耗时间)

  4. emotion(参与流于形式,被领导者其实完全无权)

  5. interest (增强被领导者执行任务的动力)

  按照对被领导者参与决策这一事儿的正反看法可以对上述的万能理由做如下分类:

  支持参与决策一方所持的观点

  Cooperation

  Communication and trust

  Interest

  反对参与决策一方所持的观点

  Time-consuming

  Participants’ frustration ( = emotion )

  根据上述分类,可以拟出下面的提纲:

  Thesis statement(主题陈述)

  Although involving others in the decision making process may have disadvantages, leaders are well advised to do so, for positive outcomes far outweigh the disadvantages.

  Topic sentences of Para. 2(第二段主题句)

  Objectively, the are some disadvantages to asking others to participate in the decision making process. e.g. The process is time-consuming and make participants feel frustrated if their input is not incorporated in the final decision.

  Topic sentence of Para. 3 (第三段主题句)

  On the other hand, there are more benefits to involving others in the decision making process. e.g. The implementation of many decisions requires cooperation of participants.

  Topic sentences of Para. 4(第四段主题句)

  In addition, involving others in the decision making process enhances understanding of issues, builds trust and promotes motivation.

  使用“冰淇淋法”容易陷于空泛,所以要注意下列三点:

  运用“冰淇淋法”的三大纪律

  1. 从题目所涉及的多个“万能理由”中选出三大条(即重要且能展开的理由);

  2. 结合题目具体化(例如,说到“经济”问题,具体地可能是“就业”问题);

  3. “万能理由”适用于题目所涉及的双方时,注意自圆其说。

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